I recommend that ALL my students complete some extra grammar lessons.
These websites provide free, instant and useful assistance
in learning and practicing the rules of
grammar, usage, mechanics, syntax and sentence structure.
This is not just for the SAT,
although it will help with that, too.
English is a complicated language,
and even native speakers need to practice the rules.
Please note that our usual grammar packets are good,
but they do not teach everything.
Sometimes, I find better materials online.We won't use the usual grammar packets right away this year -
we'll start with SAT-type sentences.
If you need more review of grammar rules,
you might want to use these materials right away.Later, if we do study each part of speech in detail,you will probably take quizzes on each one.http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/ – This site is amazing. On the lead page, scroll down to see 22 sections of grammar help, or just click on a folder topic at the top. Sections offer a diagnostic quiz, so you can see how good you are and what you need to work on, as well as lots of mini-lessons. For example, the Adjectives section has a diagnostic quiz and 13 other sections; each has information about how to choose the right words and a quiz with immediate feedback to tell you how you are doing. Frankly, I think each of you ought to do this entire site. This is excellent GUMS practice for all of you. For starters, you can take lots of diagnostic quizzes at http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/diagnosum.html and see how good you really are.
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/index.htm— This site is really good, but it is a little difficult to navigate, until you get used to it. Make sure you link to this page to look around. Below, I give you the links to the useful pages, so you don’t have to go searching. If you do want find things yourself, you’ll want to use “Word and Sentence Level” or “Paragraph Level.”+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Parts of Speech
Finding help with Parts of Speech is difficult, because most places go into a lot of detail about all of the rules governing that type of word. I recommend starting at my favorite site, and just look at the overview provided on the following pages. While you are welcome to click on further links and read the rules, all you need to do to start is identify the part of speech.
àHere are links to the pages I recommend at the first site. You’ll need to scroll down to look at the general rules for each part of speech.
- http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agreesum.html – nouns and pronouns.
- http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/adjectivesum.html– adjectives
- http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/modalsum.html– helping verbs
- http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/adverbsum.html– adverbs
- http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/prepsum.html– prepositions
- http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/connectsum.html– conjunctions, including FANBOYS
àhttp://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/definitions.htm – This page’s quizzes are too advanced, but there are parts that will help. Just don’t get overwhelmed by some of the bigger ideas. On the page, click inside this box (below) on the “Powerpoint”; it provides a good review of each part of speech. This is the address, in case the link doesn’t work.
The eight parts of speech — verbs, nouns, pronouns, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections — are defined on the pages hyperlinked below. (Some authorities would not list interjections, but would list determiners or articles, instead.) In addition, you can use the Powerpoint presentation on the Parts of Speech. Visit the page on Powerpointfor further information. The terms below — and over 300 others — are also listed in the Guide's INDEX.+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Complete Sentences (Unit 1)
àThe CCC site has some good material. Start here. Each page has notes and practice. After you read, do the quizzes at the bottom of each page.
- Sentence subjects
- Helping verbs – This has more info than you need on helping (auxiliary) verbs. (Just use this to learn what they are. Skip the quiz, if you like.)
- Run-on sentences, Comma splices
àThen, go to this website, http://www.oestarapublishing.com/grammar.html, which gives you introduction to the ideas and practice. You will have to check your answers, but they do provide links to answer sheets. Specifically, do the pages I list here.
- “Verbs Defined!” & a practice page
- “How to find verbs” & “Finding the complete verb” – this gives help with verbs, including finding the whole verb
- “How to find subjects”
- “Subject and verb finder worksheet” – this gives definitions and helps you practice
- NEW IDEA “Subjects found to the right of the verb” (not in grammar packet)
Nouns: Extra Help (Unit 2)
àStart here, at http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/. Nouns are reviewed under “Agreement.” Click on the folder’s tab, and you’ll be taken to “Agreement Summary” at http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agreesum.html. Scroll down the page and click on each name link on the left OR click on the boxes in the toolbar of Folders; you can link to each page here as well, but going back and forth might be inconvenient. Each page has lists of examples, with pictures for ESL students. At the bottom of each page is a fill-in quiz to take.
- Diagnostic quiz – You can complete this quiz first as a pre-test, but be aware that it covers lots of ideas, not just nouns.
- Plural nouns forms. Read and complete the exercises on the 6 pages listed here.
- regular plural nouns http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agree1a.html
- irregular plural nouns http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agree1b.html
- irregular plural practice http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_irregplurals.html
- irregular agreement http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agree3a.html
- 3rd person agreement http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_subjverb.html
- final –s practice http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_pluralnouns.html
- NEW IDEA Count vs. noncount items. Read and complete the exercises on the 4 pages listed here.
- count/noncount http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agree2a.html
- group nouns http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_groupnouns.html
- noncount/count practice 1 http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_countnounprac.html
- noncount/count practice 2 http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_countnounprac2.html
- This site does not help with possessives!!
àThis is another site with great info. It has lots of notes on making plurals and possessives; these two pages also link to each other. Read each page to review the rules. They review lots of special cases that can be kind of confusing, and provide really great detail. Then, take the three quizzes: “plural and possessive forms,” “irregular plurals and noncount nouns,” & “possessives and irregular plurals.”
Pronouns: Extra Help (Unit 3)
- Diagnostic quiz – You can complete this quiz first as a pre-test, but be aware that it covers lots of ideas, not just pronouns.
- Pronouns. Read and complete the exercises on the 6 pages listed here.
- pronouns http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agree5a.html
- indefinite pronouns http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agree5b.html - warning: the nobody/anybody discussion fails to point out which sentences are wrong, but several are incorrect
- reflexive pronouns http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agree5c.html
- possessive nouns http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_possessives.html
- possessive pronouns http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agr_pronouns.html
- gender agreement http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/agree6.html– You don’t have to do the whole thing, but look it over for a review of the “he or she” question.
- NOTE that this page tells you about the “informal” use of “their” to stand in for either gender, even in a singular situation. When you are writing formally, you should not use “their” as a singular pronoun, ever! We will stick to formal, proper use!
àThis is another site with great info. It has lots of notes on choosing the right pronoun. Read each page to review the rules. Then, take the quizzes.
- “Pronouns and pronoun-antecedent agreement” – a great overview, and 5 quizzes
- NEW IDEA “Cases of nouns and pronouns” – has cases of pronouns, and goes over some of the tricky choices. It includes pronouns in the appositive position. 2 quizzes.
Sentence Parts(especially useful for Pronoun Unit aboveand Sentence Construction below)Students often have trouble identifying sentence parts: subject, subject complement, direct object, indirect object, and object of preposition. This is important, because choosing the pronoun to replace a noun requires knowing what part of the sentence you've got. I found some more practice for you.Predicates, Objects and ComplementsSubjective and Objective Pronouns, with Direct and Indirect ObjectsExplanation: http://www.oestarapublishing.com/grammar/subob.html#DIRECT OBJECTSPractice: http://www.oestarapublishing.com/grammar/subobex.html#DIRECT OBJECTS++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++Modifiers: Extra Help (Unit 4)If you have been using this webpage, you know how to navigate the webpages for additional practice and help in understanding the rules. if you need some help with this, see me and I will work with you a bit to get you started.PrepositionsEveryone needs a list of prepositions. Here is a link to a handy site that lists, defines and offers examples for 150 English prepositions.Adjective or Adverb???Lots of people get mixed up. Here's a great page that introduces the idea:http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/choosing-between-adjectives-and-adverbs.htmlHere's the basic rule:àAdjectives answer the following questions about a noun:What sort? How many?Adverbs answer the following questions about a verb:How? When? Where? Why?àImportant!Prepositional phrases are modifiers - they describe other words.That means they can be adjectival (describing nouns) or adverbial (describing verbs).Consider these examples:In The Wizard of Oz, Dorothy sees a horse of another color. (adjectival - describes horse)She is accompanied by her friends. (adverbial - describes how she is accompanied)They travel to the castle of the Wicked Witch. (1. adverbial - describes where they travel. 2. adverbial - describes the castle.)++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ConjunctionsWe will study the four sentence types and practice identifying and writing them, but for now, start here, with a background on conjunctions and how to use them. Understanding this is really necessary for writing different sorts of sentences.A really good explanation of than and as used as conjunctions.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++Continue to explore these pages and do exercises on the following concepts:Verbs (Unit 5)Subject-Verb Agreement (Unit 6)Check out this GREAT list of Subject-Verb agreement rules atIt lays out 15 rules very clearly - and it included ideas that I had never learned as a "rule" myself.They make you pay for membership to take a quiz, though. You *don't* need to do that.Sentence Construction (Unit 7)* Simple* Compound* Complex* Compound-ComplexCheck out this clear and fun introduction to the ideas!Clauses - 4 pages of clear explanations link from this intro page. Definitely read these two:Intro at http://www.infoplease.com/cig/grammar-style/clauses.htmlSubordinating conjunctions at http://www.infoplease.com/cig/grammar-style/subordinating-conjunctions-link-em-together.htmlSentence structure - 4 pages link from this page, too. Definitely read these three:Intro: http://www.infoplease.com/cig/grammar-style/sentences.htmlSome basics: http://www.infoplease.com/cig/grammar-style/know-see-sentence.html4 Types of Construction: http://www.infoplease.com/cig/grammar-style/sentence-structure-fab-four.htmlPunctuation (Unit 8)++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++