Post AP test topics: organic chemistry, nuclear chemistry and special projects
Final Exam review
Mr. English, AP chemistry Review Guide 2015
AP chemistry is organized around six big ideas. These ideas are interrelated. It would be impossible to design a cumulative test, or perhaps even a single problem, which did not touch on several of the big ideas at once. That said, this study guide is an attempt to help prioritize your study efforts. There will be a total of 100 questions on the test. This outline suggests the approximate number of questions aligned with each of the big ideas. Starred topics will be emphasized. Recommendations have been made for particular types of problems to practice. Calculators will not be allowed on the final exam, and therefore math questions will be limited to those which can be solved by a method of estimation, supported by a knowledge of basic relationships. Students will have a periodic table, but no equation guide.
10-20 questions BIG IDEA 1 The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms. These atoms retain their identity in chemical reactions.
TOPIC 1A: Atoms and The Elements
TOPIC 1B: Electrons
**TOPIC 1C: The Periodic Table & Periodicity (review in particular the vocabulary related to electronic properties. Practice ranking tasks related to these properties, and the location of elements on the periodic table)
TOPIC 1D: Mass Spectrometry and Spectroscopy (this topic is omitted)
TOPIC 1E: Conservation of Atoms
20-30 questions BIG IDEA 2 Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.
TOPIC 2A: States of Matter and Solutions
TOPIC 2B: Intermolecular Forces (be able to classify materials as molecular vs ionic, and make predictions about physical properties of materials based on bond type)
TOPIC 2C: Intramolecular Bonding (review vocabulary related to intramolecular bonds. Practice ranking tasks related to topic 2D, below)
**TOPIC 2D: Bonding and Properties of Solids and liquids (specific crystal forms will not be tested. Focus on the vocabulary related to the properties of solids and liquids, and the relationship between these properties and intramolecular bond strength. Review the vocabulary related to molecular geometry, hybrid orbitals, vsepr theory)
5-15 questions BIG IDEA 3 Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.
TOPIC 3A: Chemical Reactions
TOPIC 3B: Types of Chemical Reaction (redox will not be covered in depth, but students should review reaction classification, and be able to identify reactions as redox or not).
TOPIC 3C: Energy Changes. (review relationships and formulas used in calorimetry)
5-15 questions BIG IDEA 4 Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.
TOPIC 4A: Factors Affecting Rates
TOPIC 4B: Collision Theory
TOPIC 4C: Reaction Mechanisms (simple kinetics only, not multistep reaction mechanisms)
TOPIC 4D: Catalysts
10-20 questions BIG IDEA 5 The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.
TOPIC 5A: Heat, Temperature and Kinetic Energy
TOPIC5B: Work, Calorimetry and Conservation of Energy
TOPIC 5C: Breaking and Making Chemical Bonds
TOPIC 5D: Physical and Chemical Changing and Bonding
TOPIC 5E: Enthalpy, Entropy and Free Energy
**Review in particular the meaning of signs “+” or “-“ related to the state functions Entropy (S), Enthalpy (H) and Gibbs Energy (G). Review the conditions that cause a reaction to be spontaneous in the forward direction or the reverse direction, as well as the effect of increased or decreased temperature on reaction direction.
20-30 questions BIG IDEA 6 Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.
**TOPIC 6A: Equilibrium
**TOPIC 6B: Le Chatelier’s Principle
**TOPIC 6C: Acid-Base Equilibria
TOPIC 6D: Free Energy and Equilibrium
Nuclear chemistry objectives
Balance nuclear reactions, classify common sorts (fission, fusion, alpha, beta decay, neutron emission and capture, positron decay, electron capture). Predict likely decay routes from a given isotope. Apply vocabulary terms “daughter nucleides” and “decay series” to explain the ultimate fate of heavy unstable elements. Relate nuclear decay to earlier topics of reaction rates and half life. Describe biological effect of various forms of radiation. Describe the components of a nucear reactor, and describe other practical applications of nuclear chemistry. Review the entire chapter 21 and complete problems 21.7-21.61 for practice with these objectives and vocabulary terms.
Read the vision learning text before attempting the quiz.
describe how a nuclear reaction works, both at a micro scale and a macro scale
design an experiment to determine the rate equation for the simulated decay.